Tuesday, March 14, 2017


by Phillip Starr

Most karate enthusiasts have heard the classical quote from the Father of Japanese Karate, Gichin Funakoshi, “Karate ni sente nashi.” This may be translated as, “In karate, one does not make the first move.” Many students and instructor alike believe that this means that one should not make the initial attack. This, they say, also implies that one should not use karate to bully other people or start fights. It's a nice thought but it shows a total misunderstanding of the quote.

One of Gichin's best pupils, Shigeru Egami, put it very succinctly:

When you are as one with your opponent and move naturally with him without opposition, then there is no such things as a first strike. The meaning of “karate ni sente nashi” cannot be understood until you achieve this state.”

Egami actually makes his statement with two very important points. It's essential that you understand both of them. The first statement tells us, “When you are as one with your opponent...” This is what is known as “connecting” with the opponent. It is not a skill that can be achieved quickly. It requires a great deal of concentrated, repetitive practice over time. Some regard it as a sort of mystical ability that is realized by very few. Perhaps it is a mystical thing; I never thought of it in those terms. But it can be attained by anyone who's willing to put in the required time and effort.

Learning to connect with your opponent isn't necessarily something that is consummated in a flash of blinding light. For centuries there have been established, progressive training routines that, when practiced correctly, will ultimately lead to the realization of this unique skill. And therein lies the rub; most martial arts practitioners lack the patience and resolve to continue with these routines (which, by the way, are outlined in my book, “Martial Maneuvers”).

Once this ability is achieved, you will “feel” your opponent's intentions and know when he is about to attack. His attack doesn't begin when he begins to move a particular part of his body. Rather, it begins in his mind. When he decides (in his mind) to strike you, his brain must then give the command to attack. It will send signals to various parts of his body and the physical attack commences. If you can learn to “feel” the moment when his brain gives the command to the body to go into “attack mode”, you can preempt the attack with a swift, overwhelming counter-offensive. The opponent is unable to defend himself because he is in the “attack mode.” To switch gears and go into a “defense mode” simply requires too much time and he is actually helpless!

The second statement, made as a part of the first one is, “...move naturally with him (your opponent) without opposition...” This indicates that you have taken control of what is known as “the interval.” You are, in fact, controlling your opponent's movements without his being aware of it. The concept of interval is a bit difficult to describe; it is something that must be directly experienced.

Basically, it may be defined as “the rhythm of the conflict.” The next time you watch a professional boxing match, pay close attention to the rhythm of the bout. In the opening round the two combatants “feel” each other; they try to get a sense of the opponent's timing, rhythm, distance, and spirit. Before long, one fighter will begin to control the match. If you watch carefully, you'll notice that one fighter begins to control his adversary's movements! Once he is able to do this he can “set up” his rival, causing him to move exactly as he wishes. As each new round begins, the “leader” immediately takes charge of the rhythm of the fight and his rival has no idea of what's happening. Naturally, this gives him an enormous advantage over his unsuspecting opponent. Consequently, he is usually the victor and walks home with the prize.

This is a skill that can be acquired only through many, many hours of practice with a variety of partners. Reading about it or intellectualizing about it will be of minimal help. Only hands-on experience will foster its development.

So, back to the beginning of this essay, “Karate ni sente nashi.” Master Egami is, of course, absolutely correct. Only one who has learned to connect with his opponent and control the interval can truly understand this teacher's enigmatic statement. As with most things in the martial arts, there's a lot more to it than initially meets the eye.

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